澳门新葡亰App > 体育小说 > 英语语言文学的教学为适应不断变化的新环境,对于我这么个大学到研究生都是英语专业的文科狗

英语语言文学的教学为适应不断变化的新环境,对于我这么个大学到研究生都是英语专业的文科狗
2020-01-04 05:47

近来常常被朋友们冻成狗的吐槽和大雪纷纷的照片刷屏。一切就好像是昨天一样,我一身羽绒服裹成北极熊,一脚深一脚浅踏着雪去上学。寒风里我暗暗下定了决心:毕业后一定要到温暖的地方去。


  英语专业(文理兼招)

对,我选择加州的原因就是这么简单:暖和——那里不会有零下二十度的冬天,飘到四月份的雪花,还有一步三打滑的路。

欢迎关注生信宝典微信公众号:https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/37dMnfA6RTSybzkzKnambw
The Most Common Habitsfrom more than 200 English Papers written by Graduate Chinese Engineering Students

  英语专业1983年起招收4年制本科生。目前招生名额为国内考生两个班,50人左右;国际学生三个班,约80人。英语专业旨在培养扎实的语言基础知识,训练过硬的语言应用技能,熟练掌握英语语言和文学及相关学科的知识,使学生毕业后成为翻译、教学、商贸、管理和国际交流等方面的高级人才和优秀工作者。

然而,对于我这么个大学到研究生都是英语专业的文科狗,加州的阳光在那个时候看来却是如此遥不可及。 硅谷、IT...这些东西我之前压根儿就没放进过人生规划里。

By Felicia Brittman

  英语专业具备雄厚的师资力量,现从事教学的教师中有教授15人(其中博士生导师11人),副教授9人,还聘有多名外籍教师。有19名教师具有在国内外名牌大学获得的语言学或文学博士学位,他们是外语系的英语语言文学博士点、英语语言文学硕士点、外国语言学及应用语言学硕士点以及外国语言文学博士后流动站的科研与教学中的骨干。

在来美国前,我一直想当个作家,也一直认为自己会当个作家,毕竟从小我就属于那种特别爱看书讲故事的小孩儿。我妈说我三岁就站到动物园对着天鹅做打油诗, 小时候晚上不睡觉打个手电筒蒙在被窝里偷看书把眼睛愣是看成了近视, 放学了不好好写作业底下垫着格子纸编小说,现在想想觉得自己真是对这些东西有着近乎偏执的热情。我的父母都挺不容易的,不管我那些时候是多么的出格,是多么对升学大业不管不顾,他们总还是咬着牙顶着压力, 拉着我向正轨上走。同时他们又十分开明,一直小心翼翼地保护着我的兴趣,视我的天赋和爱好为与生俱来的财富,支持我坚持我擅长和热爱的事情。

这篇文章通过示例,一对一的指出原文写法错误是什么,应该怎么写,为什么会出现这个错误,并给出一些修改建议。可以作为自己写作前指导或写作后检查指导。

澳门新葡亰App,  自2003年增设英语语言文学博士点以来,英语语言文学的教学为适应不断变化的新环境,不断革新,逐步臻于完善,制定了新的教学目标和内容,在突出清华大学学科交叉、文理渗透、中外融汇、古今贯通的前提下,力争体现清华大学英语专业的特点,即培养熟练掌握和运用高级语言技能、具备人文社会科学广博的跨学科知识、同时在具体学科或领域内具有一定思想深度的专业人才。

迷迷糊糊跌跌撞撞,不开窍的我上大学了。在理工科见长的学校里我上了个英语专业。理工科学校的外院基本就属于边沿透明区,没什么人会拿你当回事儿。但既来之则学之,重点大学学风好平台广也不乏机遇,把握住、利用好也能达成自我提升。

错误或不合适的写法用删除线删掉以示区分,修改的位置高亮显示 Incorrect

  课程设置:英语专业的课程设置有以下几个系列:

大一下半学期, 学院来了一位美国修辞学教授做讲座,他介绍说美国很多高校专门设有professional writing专业,旨在培养沟通、信息设计方面的专业人才。我忽然意识到,原来周围人一直说的“只能饿死人”的作家行业也还是有市场前景的。讲座听得我真是心潮澎湃, 觉得自己坚持和热爱的东西可算是有地儿发光发热了。不久,学院举行了交换生选拔考试,我人品爆发得到了去那个美国教授学校交换的资格,那位教授也成了我当时的导师。

最常见错误用法

a, an, the 冠词的漏用、错用

这个articles看着头疼,在这儿它的含义是 冠词

The single most common habit is the omission of articles a, an, and the. This occurs because Mandarin has no direct equivalent of articles and the rules for using them are somewhat complicated for a non-native speakers.

Articles signal that a noun will follow and that any modifiers between the article and the noun refer to that noun (a big blue bicycle / the first award). A and an are indefinite articles; the is a definite article. Every time a singular noncount noun, a common noun that names one countable item, is used the noun requires some kind of determiner.

Mistake: The, a, and an are 1) omitted where they are required, 2) used where they are not needed or contribute to wordiness 3) used wrongly in place of the correct article.

Examples of incorrect usages:

  • Figure 2 shows the distribution of relative velocity on surface of main and splitter blades.

  • Figure 2 shows the distribution of relative velocity on the surface of the main and splitter blades.

  • The software PowerSHAPE is chosen to be *a* 3D modeling tool; it is good at dealing with free surfaces and curves.

  • The software PowerSHAPE is chosen to be the 3D modeling tool; it is good at dealing with free surfaces and curves.

Note: There was only one 3D modeling tool used in this study, therefore ‘3D modeling tool’ is specific and requires the article the.

  • A theoretical method for calculating the inner flow-field in centrifugal impeller with splitter blades and investigation of the interactions between main and splitter blades is presented in this paper. The vortices are distributed on the main and splitter blades to simulate the effects of flows. Systematical study of number and distribution of vortices is conducted.

  • A theoretical method for calculating the inner flow-field in a centrifugal impeller with splitter blades and an investigation of the interactions between main and splitter blades is presented in this paper. The vortices are distributed on the main and splitter blades to simulate the effects of flows. A systematical study of the number and distribution of vortices is conducted.

  • Theoretically, remanufacturing could fully take advantage of resources contained in EOF product thereby minimizing impact on environment to the greatest extent compared to landfill or recycling of materials; consequently it contributes greatly to resource conservation.

  • Theoretically, remanufacturing could fully take advantage of resources contained in an EOF product thereby minimizing the impact on the environment to the greatest extent compared to landfill or recycling of materials; consequently it contributes greatly to resource conservation.

Definitions:

Articles: Also called determiners or noun markers, articles are the words a, an, and the. A and an are indefinite articles, and the is a definite article. Articles signal that a noun will follow and that any modifiers between the article and the noun refer to that noun. ( a cold , metal chair/ the lightning-fast computer).

Determiners: A word or word group, traditionally identified as an adjective, that limits a noun by telling how much or how many about it. (expression of quantity, limiting adjective, marker) They tell whether a noun is general (a tree) or specific (the tree). The is a definite article. Before a noun, the conveys that the known refers to a specific item (the plan). A and an are indefinite articles. They convey that a noun refers to an item in a nonspecific or general way (a plan).

Common nouns: A noun that names a general group, place, person, or thing: dog, house.

Count noun: A noun that names an item or items that can be counted: radio, streets, idea, fingernails.

Noncount nouns: A noun that names a thing that cannot be counted: water, time.

Specific noun: A noun understood to be exactly and specifically referred to; uses the definite article the.

Nonspecific noun: A noun that refers to any of a number of identical items; it takes the indefinite articles a , an.

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Very long sentences句子太长

Very long sentences are especially common in Chinese-English writing because the writers often translate directly from Chinese to English. Although, in Chinese writing it is acceptable to put several supporting ideas in on sentence to show their relationship, in English, <mark>the main idea and each supporting idea is typically written in separate sentences</mark>.

One can usually recognize a very long sentence by its length – sixty words or more. However, sentences of smaller lengths can also be too long if they contain multiple statements that confuse the main idea. Long sentences can be avoided by limiting each sentence to one or two topics. Semicolons should be used where the writer really wants to emphasize the relationship between ideas.

  • According to the characteristic of fan-coil air-conditioning systems, this paper derives the cooling formula of fan-coil units based on the heat transfer theories and puts forward a new method to gauge cooling named Cooling Metering on the Airside, which can monitor the individual air-conditioning cooling consumption during a period of time by detecting the parameters of inlet air condition – temperature and humidity – of the fan-coil air-conditioning system as well as the parameters of inlet cooling water provided by the chiller.

  • This paper derives the cooling formula of fan-coil units based on the characteristics of fan-coil air-conditioning systems and heat transfer theories, and puts forward a new method to gauge cooling called Cooling Metering on the Air-side. The new method can monitor individual air-conditioning cooling consumption during a period of time by detecting the condition of inlet air – temperature and humidity – of the fan-coil air-conditioning system as well as the parameters of the inlet cooling water provided by the chiller.

  • The gear transmission is grade seven, the gear gap is 0.00012 radians, the gear gap has different output values corresponding to any given input value, nonlinearity of the gear gap model can be described by using the phase function method, the existing backlash block in the non-linear library of the Matlab/zdimulink toolbox can be used, the initial value of gear gap in the backlash block is set to zero.

  • The gear transmission is grade seven. The gear gap, which is 0.00012 radians, has different output values corresponding to any given input value. The nonlinearity of the gear gap model can be described by using the phase function method. The existing backlash block in the non-linear library of the Matlab/zdimulink toolbox can be used; the initial value of gear gap in the backlash block is set to zero.

(这个不是太长,而是一逗到底,常见到多个句子用逗号连接的情况,造成一句话很多谓语)

Another type of super-long sentence that frequently occurs in technical papers is that of a list. The writer wants to give a large amount of data, usually parameter values, and puts this information into one long, paragraph-sized sentence. However, the best way to give such type and quantity of information is to tabulate it (put it in a bulleted list).

The clear height of the case is 6.15 meters; the thickness of the roof is 0.85 meters; the thickness of the bottom is 0.90 meters, the overall width is 26.6 meters, the overall length of the axial cord is 304.5 meters, the length of the jacking section is about 148.8 meters; the weight of the case is about 24127 tons.

Right way

• Case clearance height 6.15 meters

• Roof thickness 0.85 meters

• Bottom thickness 0.90 meters

• Overall width 26.6 meters

• Overall length of the axial cord 304.5 meters

• Length of the jacking section 148.8 meters (approx.)

• Weight of the case 24127 tons (approx.)

Prefacing the main idea of a sentence by stating the purpose,location or reason first 重点突出的语句在前

Chinese writers often preface the main topic of a sentence by first stating the purpose, location, reason, examples and conditions as introductory elements. However, this has the effect of demoting the importance of the main idea and making the reader think the author is indirect. Bring the main idea to the beginning of the sentence stating any locations, reasons, etc., afterwards.

  • For the application in automobile interiors, this paper studies the nesting optimization problem in leather manufacturing.
  • This paper studies the nesting optimization problem in leather manufacturing for application in automobile interiors.

(<mark>这个即便在CNS里面,也会有这么写的。模仿CNS文章 (虽然外教总说CNS文章写的烂),也有了每个section以目的句开头的习惯,还是多看看老外写的,找找规律,能不能矫正过来</mark>)

  • Especially when numerical control (NC) techniques[4] are widely used in industry and rapid prototype methods[5][6] bring a huge economical benefits, the advantage of constructing 3D model[7][8][9] becomes extremely obvious.

  • The advantage of constructing a 3D model[7][8][9] becomes extremely obvious especially when numerical control (NC) techniques[4] are widely used in industry and rapid prototype methods[5][6] bring a huge economical benefits. (<mark>这个写法挺好,重点在前。</mark>)

  • Inside the test box, the space was filled with asbestos.

  • The space inside the test box was filled with asbestos. (更简洁)

  • In practice, we employed this approach to dispose of a wheelhouse subassembly of one kind of auto-body, and the results show that this method is feasible.

  • We employed this approach to dispose of a wheelhouse subassembly of one kind of auto-body, and the results show that this method is feasible.

  • To ensure sheet metal quality as well as assembly quality, CMMs are widely used in automotive industry production.

  • CMMs are widely used in automotive industry production to ensure sheet metal quality as well as assembly quality.

Tendency of placing phrases which indicate time at the beginning of a sentence

  • When U is taken as the control parameter, the BDs for ∆=0.0, 0.001, 0.005 are shown in Fig. 8.
  • Figure 8 shows the BDs for ∆=0.0, 0.001, and 0.005 when U is taken as the control parameter.

Place the most important subject at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis

  • Based on the triangulation structure built from unorganized points or a CAD model, the extended STL format is described in this section.

  • The extended STL format is described in this section based on the triangulation structure built from unorganized points or a CAD model.

  • The 3D dentition defect and restoration element models are designed precisely with complicated surfaces.

  • The 3D dentition defect and restoration element models with complicated surfaces are designed precisely.

which/that

The antecedent (noun or pronoun) to which which refers is not specific, causing confusion. (这个倒是常碰到指意不明)

Antecedent: The noun or pronoun to which a pronoun refers.

‘The Shijiazhuang south road underground bridge possesses the largest jacking force, which is built at 1978(10680t).’ [‘Shijiazhuang south road underground bridge possesses the largest jacking force which is built at 1978(10680t).’

Absolute truths in paleontology are often elusive, and even the filmmakers were surprised at the fierce arguments that split the scientists when an initial brainstorming session was else.

Respectively and respective

Respectively refers back to two or more persons or things only in the order they were previously designated or mentioned. If two lists are given, respectively pairs the list entries according to the order in which they are given. In this case the use of respectively is to allow the writer to give a lot of information without confusing the reader or writing several short sentences. Respectively is usually at the end of the sentence. In both cases, mentioning the order must be important to the meaning of the sentence otherwise it is not used.

For example: Bobby, Nicole and Daren wore red, green and blue coats, respectively.

Respective to two or more persons or things only in the order they were previously designated or mentioned.

The uses of these two words are usually incorrect or confusing as in the following examples.

1.Respectively is misplaced in the sentence; it is put before the nouns to which it refers.

  • Equations 2~6 can be respectively linearized as:……(equations given)…

  • Equations 2~6 can be linearized as:……(equations given)…, respectively.

  • The weights of the two experts are respectively 0.600 and 0.400.19

  • The weights of the two experts are 0.600 and 0.400, respectively.

2.Respectively is inserted to express that there is a certain order in which something was done. However, the order is already implied elsewhere in the sentence or does not need to be expressed because it does not add value to meaning of the sentence.

  • If both the core technology score and core quality score of a bottleneck process are, *respectively*, below certain scores, then we refer to strategy 1, otherwise, if either is, *respectively*, above a certain score, then we refer to strategy 2. Similarly, if the core technology and core quality are, *respectively*, above a certain score, then we refer to strategy 3, otherwise, if either is, *respectively*, below a certain score, then we refer to strategy 4.

  • If both the core technology score and core quality score of a bottleneck process are below certain scores, then we refer to strategy 1, otherwise, if either is above a certain score, then we refer to strategy 2. Similarly, if the core technology and core quality are above a certainscore, then we refer to strategy 3, otherwise, if either is below a certain score, then we refer to strategy 4.

  • Then, the rows of vortex due to both of the long and short blades are transformed into two singularities on the ζ -plane and integrate the induced velocity along the blades*respectively*.

  • Then, the rows of vortex due to both of the long and short blades are transformed into two singularities on the ζ -plane and integrate the induced velocity along the blades.

  1. In addition to 2, it is unclear to what ‘respectively’ refers.
  • The dynamic characteristics of **a** rotor with asymmetric stiffness or with initial warp have been studied before *respectively*.

  • The dynamic characteristics of a rotor with asymmetric stiffness or with initial warp have been studied before.

  • The inlet and outlet temperature of the air cooler were measured using two thermocouples *respectively*.

  • The inlet and outlet temperature of the air cooler were measured using two thermocouples.

In this paper, in this study

Two errors occur when these phrases are used. The first is overuse. In some papers written by Chinese, these phrases can occur as much as twice per page. In papers written by native English writers these phrases are reserved for primarily two uses

  1. In the introduction and conclusion to emphasize the content of the paper.
  2. In the body of the paper, after referring to work not done by the author such as in other journal articles or in standard.

Therefore, if either phrase occurs more than three times in a paper, its use is questionable. Actually, the reader is aware that the work presented is by the author (unless the author states otherwise) so there is no reason to repeat these phrases.

The second error is more subtle. The two phrases are interchanged.

  • In this paper, IDEAS was used to ….

  • In this study, IDEAS was used to….

  • In the paper, a SZG4031 towing tractor is used as the sample vehicle, it components equivalent physical parameters are obtained by UG design and testing.

  • In this study, a SZG4031 towing tractor is used as the sample vehicle, it components equivalent physical parameters are obtained by UG design and testing.

The ‘study’ is the work the author/s did. The paper is the mode to present this work and is what the reader is holding/ reading. Keep in mind the writer can also use other phrases such as ‘in this research’, and ‘this paper present’.

Numbers and Equations

Two very common errors are those concerning the presentation of Arabic numerals, and equations. Chinese writers usually write Arabic numerals instead of spelling out the word. The use of Arabic numerals, itself, is not an error however; they should never be used at the beginning of sentences.

  • 12 parameters were selected for the experiment.
  • Twelve parameters were selected for the experiment. (常犯,这个写法好)

In addition, Arabic numerals are overused. Arabic numerals should be used to give data in technical papers, however they should not be used to give general information.

  • All *3* studies concluded that the mean temperature should be 30°C.
  • All three studies concluded that the mean temperature should be 30°C.

This probably stems from the fact that Mandarin is a symbolic language and not alphabetic. Thus, the writer will find it easier to write a symbol that expresses the idea instead of the word. This problem is even more serious when equations are used in place of words in a way that is not practiced by native English speakers. Consider the following examples.

Equations should be introduced as much as possible, not inserted in place of words. Most journals, like the International Journal of Production Research, discourage the use of even short expressions within the text.

  • If the power battery SOC *>* SOClo and the driving torque belongs to the middle load,…
  • If the power battery SOC is greater than SOClo and the driving torque belongs to the middle load,… (以后还是不要想着给杂志社省纸张了)

Format

Paragraphs

A paragraph is a group of sentences that develop one topic or thought.

Paragraphs are separated to indicate the end of one idea or thought and the beginning of another. All English paragraphs start on a new line with an indent of about one inch or with an extra line between the two paragraphs. The latter is more typical for business writing.

Chinese students are often puzzled by separating paragraphs; the may perform one of two error. One error occurs when the writer fails to distinguish between two paragraphs. Although the new paragraph starts on a new line, there is no indentation, therefore, the reader in is not aware of the change in paragraphs or ideas. The second error occurs when a paragraph is preceded by a single sentence on a single line. The single line is indented along with the succeeding paragraph as in example #. This commonly occurs in Chinese texts but is never done in English.

Figure and Table

(这个一般不会犯错,找篇杂志的文章,人家怎么写,就跟着怎么写。缩写加点是习惯用法,包括杂志名字也是。具体见参考文献中杂志名字格式混乱问题一次解决)

The abbreviations for figure and table are Fig. and Tbl., respectively. However, the abbreviation of table is rarely seen in text. One can also write fig. for figure. However, one should choose one convention and use it throughout the paper. You should not switch between, Figure, figure, Fig, or fig. In addition, abbreviations are not used at the beginning of sentences and a space belongs between the word/ abbreviation and the number.

  • Figure.6, Figure6, Fig.6, Tbl10
  • Figure 6, Fig. 6, Tbl. 10

Variables: Variables, especially those of the English alphabet, should be italicized in technical papers to distinguish them from English words. Of course, this depends on the style required by the journal.

Capitals: Be careful that capitals are not in the middle of the sentence. (打开拼写检查就好了)

  • In table 1, The mark…
  • In table 1, the mark…

such as and etc.

Such as and etc. are commonly misused by Chinese-English writers. Such as means ‘for example’ and implies that an incomplete list will follow; etc. means ‘and so on’ and is used at the end of a list to show it is not complete. Therefore, using such as and etc. together is redundant. (类似汉语的比如说..等等)

  • Studies of methodology and process of implementing remanufacturing mainly focus on durable products such as automobile motors, printers, and etc.
    *Studies of methodology and process of implementing remanufacturing mainly focus on durable products such as automobile motors, and printers.

Such as means that an incomplete list will be given and should not be used when a complete list is given.

  • Compared to traditional industry, Micro-electronic fabrication has three characteristics such as high complexity, high precision and high automation.
  • Compared to traditional industry, Micro-electronic fabrication has three characteristics: high complexity, high precision and high automation.

  一、专业技能课:

12年八月,啥都不懂的我跑到美国交换了。当时就是冲着学写作去的,本身自己也并没有对美国课业繁重程度有什么客观认识,稀里糊涂一股脑选了四个writing的课加一个教授的独立学习,涵盖了专业写作、小说创作、学术写作、修辞学,弄得教授直喊“Stop, no more, you will die in homework”。选课一时爽,上课火葬场,和国内比虽然我课门数少,课程表上看着空(那时候我周二周四没有课),但实际上一周基本都没什么休息时间,50+小时学习是标配,作业堆积时候基本60、70也是有可能的(当然我知道很多牛校里同学们都是这样,甚至更累,只是自己毕竟之前没这么学过习,头一遭也算是明白了什么叫学习了)。尽管每天被大量reading和作业包围,但是那是我大学四年里最充实的时光,因为我自己知道每天我都在汲取新营养,在做我衷心热爱的事情。 因为爱,就不知道累了,因为爱,就更懂得珍惜和坚持。

系统类错误

  1. Some words have identical singular and plural forms and do not need an s added on to make them plural. These words include: (复数无需加s)
  • literature (when referring to research)
  • equipment
  • staff (referring to a group of people)
  • faculty
  1. 写作冗余

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  1. 自带复数含义

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  1. Never begin an English sentence with abbreviations and Arabic numerals such as Fig. and 8. Instead write Figure and Eight.

  2. Do not write ‘by this way’. Instead write by doing this, or using this method.

  3. Never write ‘How to…’ at the beginning of a sentence. (Don’t say it either.)

  • How to find the optimal parameter is the main objective.

  • Determining how to find the optimal parameter is the main objective.

  1. Do write the results are shown in Figure 2. Do not write ‘the results are showed as Figure 2’.

  2. Italicize variables appearing in the text to differentiate them from words. This is especially important when the variables are English alphabets. Write ‘The graph shows t, a, and C as a function of time’. Do not write ‘The graph shows t, a, and C as a function of time’.

  3. Refrain from using the word obviously in a technical paper in the following way

  • Obviously, detecting regimes by means of PMH maps is a novel method.
  • Detecting regimes by means of PMH maps is a novel method.8
  1. International papers should not use location dependant terms such as ‘at home’, ‘abroad’, ‘here’, ‘our country’ because the reader most likely is not Chinese and not in China. Instead, write ‘in China’. (这句话写的好像就我们中国人写不好英语似的)

  2. Avoid overusing the phrases that is to say and namely. Instead, try to convey your meaning in one sentence.

  3. Do not use too at the end of a written sentence, especially in a technical paper.

  (1)综合阅读和高级阅读课程,为英语专业之主干课,具备传统精读课的全部特点,同时力图在专业水平、思想深度、文化广度和学科层次上高于精读课;贯穿四年始终。

那个学期我的英语听说读写得到了突飞猛进的质变,更重要的是我通过学习不同的课程对写作有了更多元化的认识。 以前我觉得,写作嘛就是讲故事写小说呗,来这里上了个课叫introduction to professional and technical writing,发现以前自己把写作想窄了。人家把写作不当写作来教,而是当沟通来教,说话写东西归根结底是为了把信息有效地传达给受众,怎么才叫”有效“呢?第一你得了解受众,知道写给谁,知道他们的特点和需求。在这基础上,你就要思考怎么才能把信息输送到人家的天线接收器上,怎么排列文字,怎么运用逻辑,甚至于怎么设计你最后文章的版式,每个点深追下去都是学问。这门课上我们尝试了不同文体创作:商务文章(提案)、新闻文章(人物)、科技写作(科普文)还有说明书写作等,实践中,我越来越明白写作最核心的意义:沟通,沟通,有效的沟通。

References

  1. 原文 http://www.cjig.cn/UploadFile/The%20Most%20Common%20Habits%20from%20more%20than%20200%20English%20Papers%20written.pdf

  (2)中高级写作课,为英语专业之基础课,旨在让学生在四个学期(两个学年)内掌握英语写作的技能,高年级开设学术写作课(包括文献检索等)。

一个学期的交换,我更坚定要学写作,我就是喜欢,特别喜欢。

科学写作视频课

这些内容在斯坦福2013年开设的写作课程都有提及,讲师是生物背景,更适合我们做生物科研的人学习。茶余饭后听一听,既可以提高听力,更能提高写作。

http://online.stanford.edu/course/writing-in-the-sciences

现在应该还是可以在线注册听讲。如果不想注册的,也可以<mark>转发此文章到朋友圈</mark>,支持下我们的写作,截图发送至邮箱<train@ehbio.com>, 我们会给您下载好的视频链接, 只供学习使用。

  (3)听力和口语训练课,为英语专业之基础课,旨在让学生在四个学期内提高中高级听力和会话能力,达到交流自如;高年级开设影视欣赏,要求听懂英语电影中的对话,准确率达到85%以上。

就是这种热爱,研究生时候我又回到了这所学校攻读专业写作方面的硕士。比较幸运的是,由于之前交换学习成绩优异外加我申请时候各方面硬件软件条件都不错,我拿到了奖学金,学费上免去了很大的压力。当时选择学校时候还纠结于一个名气更大的藤校,项目排名基本是全美老大,但是高昂的学习生活费用让我不断倒抽冷气。

怎么组织文章

前面是语法,这篇是结构。可以参考怎么组织文章。另外一个是仿照同领域高水平文章,在模仿中进步。

http://thegrantlab.org/news/2016/09/18/structuring-your-scientific-paper/

  (4)英汉-汉英互译和口译课,为英语专业之基础课,旨在让学生接触各种类型的笔头翻译范式,进行不同形式和内容的口译训练,条件允许时也开设同声传译课,使学生毕业后能够从事各类翻译活动。

记得申请时候同专业的同学都在积极的换方向,大多数往商科上靠,只有我执拗地坚持学写作的想法,有的人看着我摇头:“你一个英语专业的跑到美国学人家的英语,学得过么,就算学得过,又怎么谋生呢?”是啊,不光外人这么看,我自己从选择这个项目起就明白CS专业那种一毕业工作就能回本儿的事儿与我八竿子也打不着,我能做的就是尽可能别让我爹妈太下本儿了。 本着少花钱办正事儿的原则,选学校时候奖学金确实起了很大的影响。 还有一个原因,我交换的学校在计算机科学领域成绩斐然, 什么专业都会沾点计算机,写作方面专门设置了technial writing /information design这个小方向,是美国最早开设这种项目的学校,排名也一直前两位,也许去接受一下科技熏陶还能在追求人文之余学点hard skill,况且这个专业对于写作生而言还算好找工作的,起码养活自己吃饱饭再追求我热爱的文学事业。现在看来,就是这个一闪念的想法,给我之后的发展埋下了种子。

文章图表规范

  • 文章用图的修改和排版 (1)
  • 文章用图的修改和排版 (2)
  • 简单强大的在线绘图
  • 简单强大的在线绘图-升级版
  • 论文图表基本规范
  • 学术图表的基本配色方法

  二、专业相关知识课:

14年8月,我又回到了熟悉的城市——夜晚河上斑斓的光影,道路上呼啸的汽车,桥头闪烁的霓虹,起起伏伏的山坡,一切似乎都还是从前一样,只是那时候的我不知道,同样的地方同样的场景下我将会走,一条不一样的道路。

唠叨

写作最重要的是多读,读的多才能写的好。不然只是干写,较难进步。在阅读中,体会那些自己想写却写不出来的句子,有醍醐灌顶的感觉。潜移默化的,就进步了。

学习程序也一样:了解了语法,就是多读别人的代码。看到一个有一个精巧的解决问题的方式,学到了,可以灵活运用了,就能提高了。附送两篇文章

  • 生物信息之程序学习
  • Python学习没有捷径,但可以加速,零基础九天你也可以会编程

  英语国家概况,西方社会与文化,英国历史,美国历史,西方思想史,西方文明史等。

这里插一嘴,通往硅谷这条路上,我没有转过CS。确实,我的学校有着很浓的CS氛围,更疯狂的是这里转CS的Trend: 不管什么专业学生的都想转CS,那些一年半载就转型收获硅谷offer的故事也是满天飞着。当时经常一起玩儿的朋友来自不同的项目,有几个学机械的朋友从刚来就念叨着要学CS要学CS,在上学前就开始提前下课件敲代码刷leetcode了,在我一个文科生听来这都是天书,觉得无限高大上。大家想转CS的原因只有一个:好找工作。对于CS,我也没想过要转,听他们说CS我都听不懂,从小我这数理化不灵光的脑子,我自己看过一些公开课也明白自己的斤两。之后看我那些转CS的朋友们夜以继日的学习、上课、刷题,我也暗暗侥幸自己没有铤而走险,毕竟自己不如人家理工基本功扎实意志坚定,人家理科生尚且挣扎,我如果生生把时间全投进去转或许会得不偿失。

  三、语言学和文学专业课:

我总是觉得什么专业学好了都能有机会,有很多时候跟风跟错了,在不适合自己的路上走反而就偏了,还不如在把本专业学好的前提下有的放矢延展一些技能,扬长并适当补短。本科时候我是这个策略,研究生时候我还这样。事实证明,这个路数我算没有走歪,至少给我带来了实习和工作的机会,下面具体说说具体怎么做,也许不适用每个人,但都是我的经历和感受:

  (1)语言类:语言学概论,英语词汇学,英语史,英语文体学,语言学流派,句法学,语义学,计算机语言学,机器翻译导论等。

学好本专业:

还是那句话,什么东西学到极致了都会给自己带来机会。CS一样,写作也一样。

记得那会儿我妈妈给我分享了一篇文章,大概是说剑桥大学发现语言和写作决定人发展的潜力。这世界上会写字儿的人不少,会说话的也不少,但是能合理有效利用这两种媒介的人却没那么多。把信息准确、有效地传达给受众是一项很重要的能力。

硕士期间,我一直在努力提升这种能力,也从中体会到了写作之奥妙,每一堂课都在不断刷新我对于写作的认知。Style课上,我明白了被动语态和主动语态在不同情境给人带来的观感差异,模棱两可的名词化动词会让文章变得晦涩生硬,逻辑断层的语段让人读上去是如此地前言不搭后语。Advanced Journalism课上我明白了,storytelling是人类从古至今最强大的能力,令人信服的故事能改变人的思想影响社会发展的潮流。 Technical writing课上我明白了,言简意赅这件事在信息爆炸的时代是如此珍贵,信息图示能够将鸿篇巨著浓缩在几寸屏幕...我所学到的,已经远远超过了我们通常定义的“写作”范畴。那时候我们的advisor经常说,你们要成为communication expert,你们要比其他人更懂得沟通,从小事做起,写email,写note甚至买东西和人聊天时候都要记得有效地去沟通。

这样的训练让我受益匪浅:在做CV、完善linkedIn的时候我会更多考虑怎么简明扼要直击重点,排版清晰突出关键;career fair上和recruiter交流时, 我也更懂得要直入主题,寥寥数语呈现个人特色;interview follow up上,我也明白礼貌措辞, 偶尔穿插幽默,呈现一个得体、自信、轻松的状态。

此外,因为我们专业同学都是美国人,平时和他们混我也把口语练得越来越溜,这也对我很有帮助。英语好对事业发展真的有很积极的作用,记得前一段本科学校校友湾区聚会,来了美国二三十年的老校友讲起中国人在硅谷公司的一些升职瓶颈,都提到口语这个拦路虎。是啊,上学时候中国留学生都挺喜欢扎堆儿的,理工科专业美国人也学不太明白,经常看到有的专业就被中国人印度人包圆儿了,在这个环境下,很多学生学了硕士掌握了一身的硬技术但是英语还是哑巴英语,找到工作后和美国人沟通还是成问题,磕磕巴巴的口语,满篇chinglish的书面表达是很难在职场上凸显自我的。相比而言,印度人一般英语都特别好,虽然有口音但是人家说得快还敢说,这么一来技术和表现相结合,也难怪那么多老印登上了硅谷的权利顶峰。

发挥英语专业的优势,提升有效沟通的能力,小小的写作专业也给了我宝贵的财富。

  (2)文学类:英国文学史,美国文学史,欧洲文学史,西方文学批评史,英国文学专题,美国文学专题,英国文学经典,美国文学经典,文学批评导论,诗歌、小说、戏剧和散文赏析等。

给自己的能力加点料:

学好专业是个前提,然而对于一个在美国人堆里学写作的中国人,单单学好专业却还不够,关键问题就在于和native speaker比你完全没有优势。 我的导师是个日本人,MIT博士,在美国呆二十多年,他总是告诉我咱们外国人不管怎么学英语,写得多好都不可能和native speaker一样,必须得有点其他技能凸显自己的特色才能有一席之地。我当时就想了,光靠writing拼不过老外,那就得在别的方面使使劲儿。

之前说我们专业是和design合办的,因而专业设置了不少design的课程。第一学期我们就有一个design学院开的必修课communication design fundamentals,就是比较基本的一个培养平面设计感觉的课。课上我们接触了Illustrator一类的设计常用软件,并且制作了海报、杂志页面以及信息图,了解了基本的配色原则、设计概念等。因为都是写作专业的学生,大家大都没怎么碰过设计软件,上课时候身边老美总是抱怨不迭,但是我学得还是挺开心的,因为从小比较喜欢画画儿,我发现自己还有点这个感觉。在这个全班平均成绩基本是B的课上,我捞了个A。学期末我的日本导师把我叫到办公室,说:“我觉得你Design上有sense,如果将来你往information design上下下功夫,也学点用户体验方面的东西,能给你tech writing事业起很大的帮助。”

他这番话听得我精神振奋,当即回去LinkedIn Job栏里搜了一串technical writer的job description。嘿,正如教授所说,好些叫得上名的大公司对technical writer的要求里都提到了graphic design/information design,user experience research等等, Google, FB一类的公司有些还要求一些coding技能。我当时自己整理了一个excel表格,把我当时搜索到的公司的description都摘了下来, 最后整理归纳了一系列technical writer需要会的工具和基本能力要求,依照这个自己制定下两学期的学习规划。

有的放矢地拓宽能力,真的能更高效。接下来的两个学期,我学习了information design和multimedia design,在做project中不断熟悉工具,更重要的是了解怎么在有限的空间时间里阐明庞大的信息,渐渐将设计和写作融会贯通起来。 我去学了个web design,自己从头开始做个网站,从用户调研到最后coding,不会了就问问助教,google一下,也学会了关注一些技术博客,平时也喜欢在udacity等MOOC上学习一些新的front-end技能,就这么样这门课我竟然拿到了A+的成绩。我也学习了现在technical writing的常用工具,并在暑假实习时候加强了对这些工具的熟悉。同时我也去学习了一些user experience research相关的课程,对现在的用户调研、数据分析都进行了一定的了解和实践。最后一个学期,在导师建议下,我上了一个engineering学院开设的工程设计课,和工程师们一起进行产品设计,我在里面担任doc lead,帮他们最后整合报告、设计manual和最终的展示图,真正让我体会到了作为一个writer & designer怎么在工程师团队里与不同领域的人合作。

和所有人一样,学新东西的过程总是掺杂着各种小困难,但是learning curve这件事在什么时候都有,没有可抱怨的,想办法使巧劲儿,多问问自己多研究一下,总归都是可以解决的。 目标明确了,一步一个脚印走就好。

学这些东西,我固然是不可能和科班出身基础扎实的大神比肩的,两个学期,我觉得我能说的也就是自己试了试皮毛,但是有这些能力放在简历上确实帮助我在和native speaker竞争时候多了硬实力。记得刚来上学时候,第一次career fair,,身边中国同学都是CS的刚来啥都没学呢就能攥一把面试,好不容易碰到个要tech writer的IT公司一看你是个中国人基本就是哼哼哈哈过去了。待到第二个学期我准备更充分的时候,一些公司的recruiter已经有耐心听我自我介绍,不会直接冲我微笑握手说拜拜了,有些更nice甚至愿意看看我的portfolio.再到暑假实习回来后的那个学期,新技能get更多,已经不用我自己投简历,有HR愿意直接联系我给我面试了。最后我拿的几个offer,也都是HR直接联系的,最后十月就定了工作,踏踏实实地准备收拾东西去暖和的硅谷过冬。 这个过程中,我不断反思,再改变,再反思,循环往复中见证自己的成长。

北美留学声的Leo老师从一月开始约我写写我一个文科生是怎么跑到硅谷工作的,然而搬家入职忙忙叨叨,文章竟然从一月写到了三月。借由约稿,我得以回头梳理一下自己刚过去不就得硕士生涯。想想真的很感谢这一年半。对照我刚来时候的简历和现在的简历,我怎么都不会想到这些密密麻麻的新能力新项目是在这短短三个学期实现的。对于自己的工作谈不上满意但是算不失望,说得上名字的大公司也算稳定,能给我自己前期一些沉淀和积累的时间。

当然,这一年半我过的不轻松,学习从来都不是轻而易举的事情。在知乎上总是看到什么多长时间可以从零可以精通某某技能的提问,现在很多人把学习想得太容易,好像什么都可以速成,太多“零基础速成编程大牛进硅谷”之类的故事让人变得越发浮躁,忽略了学习本身要求的知识积累和反复练习,以及一部分人那无可替代的天分。我们能做的不是做梦,而是脚踏实地走好学习的过程,那些停留在YY里的空中楼阁能少想就少想,不求精通新技能,但求入门能入得扎实一点,过程好了,结果也就水到渠成。

至于我的作家梦,不要担心我的朋友们,她一直都在。现在的我很开心,因为找到工作后我下班之余又拿起了我的笔写我爱的文字,记我身边的故事。快乐,真的就是这么简单,能吃饱,能持续学习,能有时间做自己的爱好。

硅谷午后的阳光灿烂得刺眼,让我看不太清前方的路。之后怎么样,我还需要自己去闯一闯。

  四、跨学科文化选修课:

  (1)在全校范围内的9个课组选课:哲学与政治;经济管理与法律;历史与文化;当代中国与世界;中外文学;艺术与欣赏;阅读与写作;军事理论与技术;科学与技术。

  (2)汉语语言与文化类选修课:现代汉语,古代汉语,中文基础写作,现代汉语语法分析,古代散文专题,中国现代戏剧研究等。

  五、自然科学和计算机类选修课:

  微积分,高等数学,统计学;计算机文化基础,计算机辅助语言研究。

  六、暑期小学期实践:

  结合英语夏令营开展英语戏剧排练(莎剧),英语诗歌朗读会(成立了英语诗社),小说读书会和翻译学社等活动。

  七、其他课程:

  德育和体育,学校根据教育部要求统一安排。

  清华大学现已发展成涵盖理、工、文、法、经济、管理、艺术、教育和医学等学科的综合性大学。因此,外语系英语专业的学生可以在跨学科发展的大氛围内,充分利用学校各学科的资源和优势,选修全校各系、所开设的一系列素质课程。感兴趣者可同时选择攻读相关专业的双学位课程,如法学、经济学等。英语专业的学生根据品学兼优的条件享受外语系及学校设立的各类奖学金和助学金。符合条件者可被推荐免试攻读英语专业、外国语言学及应用语言学专业或其他专业(如文、史、哲、经管、法律、社会学、政治学、教育学、公共管理、新闻传播、国际问题研究等)的硕士、博士学位。

  目前,英语专业已有大批学生毕业,其中相当一部分经过推荐或考试攻读硕士研究生,毕业后成为各行各业的骨干。他们的主要去向包括:国家机关,新闻媒体,大专院校,研究机构、公司企业(国企、合资企业、三资企业)、国内外继续深造等。实习基地一般在中国日报社、中国国际广播公司、北京电视台、外文局以及各大公司、企业等。

  此外,英语专业本科生目前有80%以上的学生有机会赴美国、英国、德国、法国等国家的高校以及香港特区的高校学习交流。硕士研究生和博士研究生在校期间也均有出国研究交流的机会。

  日语专业

  自2009年,外语系日语专业被清华大学列为提前录取专业。

  日语专业每年面向文科(外语为英语的考生)招收(含保送)四年制本科生一个班(25人左右)和一个外国留学生班(25人左右)。

  本专业旨在培养具有扎实的日语语言基础、较强的日语语言运用能力和广泛的人文、科技、经贸等专业知识,毕业后能从事翻译、教学、商贸、管理、国际文化交流等领域工作的高级日语人才。日语专业学生的英语课程按照双学位教学计划进行,四年不断线。

  课程设置:日语专业的课程设置有以下几个系列:

  一、专业技能课:

  (1)阅读课程:基础日语(1-4)、日语精读(1-3)、日语泛读(1-2)

  (2)写作课程:日语写作(1-2)、日语论文写作指导

  (3)听力和口语训练课程:日语听力(1-2)、日语视听(1-2)、日本影视欣赏、日语会话(1-2)、日语实用会话(1-2)、日语口译(1-2)

  (4)翻译课程:日语翻译(1-2)

  二、专业相关知识课:

  日本报刊选读、日本社会、日本文化概论、日本历史

  三、语言学和文学专业课:

  日本近现代文学、日本古代文学、古典日语语法、日本语言研究基础。

  四、跨学科文化类选修课(同英语专业)

  五、自然科学与计算机类选修课程(同英语专业)

  六、暑期小学期实践:

  军事理论与技能训练、日语戏剧排演、日语听力会话训练和翻译实习。

  七、其他课程:

  德育和体育,学校根据教育部要求统一安排。

  清华大学日语学科自1999年恢复招生以来,在学科建设与人才培养方面实施了切实有效的改革措施,并取得较好成效,为教学服务建立了有效保障。

  清华大学日语专业根据21世纪社会发展的实际需求,明确提出“日语语言能力・英语语言能力・计算机基础知识与技能”三位一体的人才培养模式,同时注重对于学生创新意识和综合能力的培养。学生除需认真完成好本专业的学习科目外,可以充分利用清华大学多学科的软硬件资源与优势,有目的地选修校内各院、系开设的一系列全校性的选修课,从而达到全面提高综合性素质的目的。此外,日语专业还通过有计划地组织学生参与、筹划、主办一系列日本文化交流活动,培养和锻炼学生的实际工作能力。

  通过上述各个环节的综合性培养,清华大学日语专业的学生无论在专业知识与技能或者思维方法与综合素质方面都形成了比较明显的优势。符合条件者可被推荐免试攻读日语语言文学专业、外国语言学及应用语言学专业或其他专业(如文、史、哲、社会学、政治学、经管、法律、公共管理、新闻传播、国际问题研究等)的硕士、博士学位。日语专业毕业生的专业水平和综合性素质已受到社会各界用人单位的一致好评。

  日语专业现有中国教师14人(3名教授;7名副教授;7人具有博士学位),另有3名日籍教师。

  为给学生创造更好的语言学习环境,加强学生对于对象国的认识与了解,日语专业与多所日本大学建立了友好交流关系,现在日语专业本科生和研究生每年有多名学生作为公派留学生赴日本各大学留学。此外,品学兼优的学生除可享受由政府和学校提供的各种奖学金和助学金外,日语专业还得到日资企业的大力赞助,每年有15名学生可以享受到日资企业的高额奖学金。

  日语专业自2008年秋季开始尝试新的教学模式,全体中国学生在四学年中将有一学年的时间在日本度过,其中半年在日本的ANA(全日空航空公司)实习、半年在日本的早稻田大学学习。

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